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GAMES,GAMES,GAMES
Knock out

Materials needed:
Basketball hoop
2 basketballs

First two people in line have a basketball. 1st person takes a shot at the basket from the foul line. If they miss, they give the ball to the next person in line with out a ball. If they make the basket, they can shoot from anywhere they want. They can miss. The next person in line takes a shot from the foul line. If they make the basket, they "knock out" the person who has earned the right to "practice shooting" and they can shoot from anywhere until they are "knocked out." Simple but fun game.

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  Fitness Tag

Materials needed:
Shirts with exercises printed with washable marker
Cones

Shirts to designate "fitness police" Exercises are written on the shirts with washable marker on the front and back- jumping jacks, push ups, crunches, mountain climbers, jogging in place, etc.
Designate a "Fitness Health Center " where the tagged students go to "get in shape " by performing 10 of the exercises of their tagger before they return to the playing area. Mark off the "fitness center with cones in a corner of the playing area.

Designate the boundaries of the play area. When playing inside, use a speed limit (walking only, no running), outside allows 55 mph speed zone (running permitted). Offenders go to "court" (a penalty box area) for 10 "Walk, don't run" repeated phrases  

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  Electoral College Vote Tag

Equipment needs: Poster size US map with states and electoral vote numbers. (Check your teacher center for this).
Paper (tally sheets) and pencil for the candidates to record their capured states and votes.
Cards with each state name (don't forget Washington DC)
Stations for the candidate's headquarters.

Taggers represent the candidates plus a "Write In" candidate (eg: Clinton, Dole, Perot, Write In).

The candidate says their name when they tag the "constituents." The captured students go to the candidates "headquarters" The captured students are given cards with the states name written on them fron the teacher or another student until everyone is tagged. The students go to the map and find out how many electoral votes they represent.

The candidate records and totals the electoral votes. The election tally sheets are brought to the teacher who announces the winner. The results are posted for each class.

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Show Me the Frisbee
(inspired by the phrase " Show me the money" from the movie Jerry Maguire) 1997

Equipment: Frisbees (foam for inside), Whoosh rings
Skills: Tracking, Catching
Object of the game: To catch frisbees before they touch the ground
Directions:
Divide the class into two teams
Define "no man's land" between the two teams- if players enter the no man's land, they move to the sideline and perform 10 jumping jacks before returning to the game. If they enter the no man's land to retrieve a frisbee, they must hand the frisbee to another player on the other team.
Players throw or toss the frisbees to the other side.
When a frisbee is caught, the catcher holds up the frisbee and "show" the frisbee to the counter (scorekeeper) who raises their hand to acknowledge the catch. Scorekeeping is optional.
Sideline penalty box exercise for falling on the ground, jumping into another player, grabbing a frisbee out of the hands of another player, pushing other players.

Variations:
Catch with one hand
Tapping frisbee before catching
Catch whoosh ring on arm.


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COOPERATIVE GAMES/ACTIVITIES
compiled by Marcia Merritt (PESinger37@aol.com) uploaded to the HPE forum on AOL 9/14/98

ROLL PLAYING
Equipment: 1-3 or 4 balls, any kind and size
Objective: working together, creating a rhythm
Object: to move the ball around the circle as quickly as possible, from lap to lap without using the hands.
All sit in a tight circle, touching your neighbor, with the legs extended toward the middle. Place a basketball on the lap of one person in the circle. Move the ball around the circle as quickly as possible, from lap to lap but you can not use your hands. Add a couple of signals like: reverse, go, slow motion. You may add more balls. Add a smaller ball (like a softball or tennis ball and eventually a golf ball or ping pong ball).

FOUR UP
Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation, focus on each other
Object: to have exactly four people standing at all times
Start with everyone sitting down. Anyone can stand up whenever they want to but you cannot remain standing for more than five seconds at a time before you sit down again. Then you can get right up again if you want to. The object is to have exactly four people standing up at all times. This game usually lasts about a minute, but what pandemonium and laughter is generated in that minute!

WHITEWATER CASCADE
Equipment: none
Objective: trust, cooperation, communication
Object: move a person along the "river on the laps of the seated people to the end
Form a long, double line, facing each other. Sit opposite, with feet straight out and next to the side of the other’s hips. Tighten up the total line so everyone is snug. The line can curve. This works better outside and on a gentle slope of a hill. Now, people "enter the river by laying flat on their backs, head down river. The lines begin to move the person along the rapids, with hands underneath and with knees raised as necessary to move the person along. Reflect feelings at the end and then join the river at the end

COOKIE MACHINE
Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation, trust, communication
Object: successfully bring one person from one end of the "oven to the other end of the oven.
Form two lines that face each other, all standing shoulder to shoulder with elbows bent and forearms in front, palms up. The forearms should alternate, one player’s arm should each be flanked by the arms of players across from them. Everyone must bunch together very closely, with one foot forward and one foot back for balance. Now, a solidly built oven with a conveyer belt running down the middle has been built. Make sure all watches, rings and anything sharp are removed from the oven and glasses and belts from the cookie. The cookie stands at one end of the oven, announces what kind of cookie they want to be and slides themselves into the oven. The rest of the class are bakers and chant their cookie choice (Chocolate chip, chocolate chip ) as they bounce them along the conveyor belt, turning them over halfway through, until they pop out the other end, freshly baked. Make sure there are two strong bakers available to ease each cookie out of the oven. After the cookie is done they join the oven.

SLIPPED DISC
Equipment: frisbee, plastic plate or metal cover
Objective: cooperation, communication
Object: pass the frisbee around the circle without using hands
Everyone forms a circle on hands and knees with heads facing inward. A frisbee is placed in the middle of one person’s back. The object of the game is to pass the object around the circle, from back to back, without using hands. If the object falls, it is picked up by hand and placed on the back of the last person who had it. The game continues until the disc is passed successfully around the entire circle.

FOX AND SQUIRREL
Equipment: 2 balls alike, 1 ball that is different
Objective: passing skills, communication, thinking strategies
Object: for the foxes to catch the squirrel by tagging whoever is holding the squirrel ball with one (or both) of the fox balls.
Everyone stands in a circle and begins passing the fox balls from player to player. You may change directions but may only pass to the person next to you. You may throw the squirrel across the circle. Call out Fox or Squirrel each time you pass one of the balls. You may also pass the squirrel to your neighbor. The object is for the fox to catch the squirrel.

GROUP JUGGLING
Equipment: 1 ball per person (5-8 in a group)
Objective: cooperation, tossing and catching skills Object: to pass the ball to all participants once, eventually add a ball per person
Have everyone stand in a circle. First a pattern/throwing routine must be established. The first one throws the object to another person (not the one next to him/her). Then that person throws the object to another person.
Once the pattern is made you must remember who you throw it to and who throws to you. The next step is to increase a ball with each pattern repetition.

LINE-UPS
Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation, communication
Object: line up by the way told, either communicating, non-verbal Line up by age: non-verbally, verbally
2. Line up by height: non-verbally, time them
3. Do these blindfolded

BODY SNATCHERS
Equipment: none (could use blindfolds)
Objective: trust
Object: avoid being snatched by the Body Snatcher
Choose one player as the evil invader from outer space and the rest go around with their eyes closed. The invading body snatcher gets to keep their eyes open. They creep up t an unsuspecting citizen and make whatever blood-curdling sound they want and that person becomes a new body snatcher. The last one left gets to be the new body snatcher.

MINEFIELD
Equipment: paper balls, socks, plastic balls or anything that resembles a ball, mousetraps!!!, blindfolds for each pair
Objective: communication
Object: verbally guide the blindfolded person across the minefield in as little time as possible.
Make the boundaries and spread out the mines. Find a partner and go to opposite sides of the minefield. One player is blindfolded and the other verbally tells them how to go through the field. If a mine is blown up (touched) a ten second time penalty is added to their final time. You can do this alone or the whole group together. It makes for better listening!

HAGOO
Equipment: none
Objective: fun
Object: to travel across a distance without laughing/ to make someone from the other team laugh
Hagoo means come here in Tlingit Indians of Alaska. Two teams face each other, about 3 feet apart. Two players, one for each team, who stand at the opposite ends of the lines are challengers. They step forward and face each other down the length of the gauntlet. With a bow and the invitation Hagoo, they walk towards each other, breaking neither their eye contact nor their reserve. In the middle, they pass and continue to the end, determined to suppress their smile. The rest of the players may engage in any form of facial movements or noises but no touching. If you make it the whole length then you stay with your team. If you smile or laugh you join the other team. You play until everyone has done it or there is only one team.

ROPE KNOTS
Equipment: length of rope about forty to fifty feet long
Objective: communication, cooperation
Object: for the group to untie the knots without letting go of the rope
Tie three simple slip through knots at about the quarter, half and three-quarter points. Instruct people to take hold of the rope with one hand, making sure that there are 2,3,4 people along each quarter of the rope. The task is then to untie the knots without letting go of the rope.

COUNTDOWN
Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation
Object: someone must start at the top of the numbers (if there are 10 in the group then the number is 10) and then someone else (not sitting next to that person) must say the next lower number. You must countdown to 1.
Do not sit in a circle and there are no assigned numbers. The leader says, countdown and someone starts with the highest number. If to people call the same number at the same time, the leader calls out Cancel the Launch, and they start over. If there is too long a pause in the countdown the leader can cancel the launch.

MOBIL TEE PEE
Equipment: bell or gong, mats, stop watch
Objective: cooperation
Object: form a human tee pee in 120 seconds and move it
Give the ten people 120 seconds to build a human tee pee using all ten people. Next is for the group to move the human tee pee from one point to another without breaking the tee pee formation. Have spotters.

SQUARE FORM
Equipment: ball of yarn, blindfolds
Objective: communication, cooperation
Object: to form a circle while holding the yarn and blindfolded
Have the players line up by their birthdays (month and date) starting with January. Put on a blindfold and give them the yarn and ask them to hold it and then as a group form a perfect circle. Take off the blindfolds when you think you have one.

THE SHRINKING SHIP
Equipment: 6-8 foot rope, stop watch
Objective: team building, cooperation
Object: put everyone’s feet in the circle
Make the perimeter of the circle large enough to guarantee success. Everyone’s feet must be inside of the circle in fifteen seconds. Once they have experienced success from the first round, ask them if they would be willing to make the circle smaller. Continue as long as the group is willing.

HOOP-DE-DOO
Equipment: hula hoop, rope, ball, weight
Objective: tossing and catching skills, cooperation
Object: toss the ball through the hoop and someone catches it Hang a hoop and tie a weight at the bottom to steady it. Divide the group, with half going to opposite sides of the hoop. Have them toss the ball through the hoop and someone catch it on the other side. Do this until everyone has tossed and caught.
Now the leader winds up the hoop so that it begins to spin. Begin the tossing and catching again. After a person has done the task they go to the end of the line on the other side of the hoop.

WALK-A-HOOP
Equipment: two hula hoops
Objective: cooperation, communication
Objective: group to walk across the space without dropping either hoop without using their hands.
Use 6-9 people and divide them into 3 groups. The group at the center places their left leg inside one hula hoop, and right leg inside a second hoop. The side groups then connect to the opposite sides oh the hoops. The leader raises the hoops to knee level and tells them to put tension on it to hold it above the ground. They then have to walk across the assigned space without dropping either hoop. If the group drops the hoop, then have them return to the starting point and start again. **

HULA HOOP PASS
Equipment: hula hoop
Objective: cooperation, communication
Object: get the hoop around the circle of hand held people without letting go of hands
Form a circle and all join hands. Put the hoop on the grasped hands of two players. See how fast you can pass the hoop around the people in the circle without letting go of hands. You can add another hoop and make it go the other way.

TEAM ACROSS
Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation, communication
Object: team must move across the field as quickly as possible, with the following rules.
A minimum of one team members’entire body must be off the ground at all times. The entire group must be connected at all times. No one is allowed to run. If the person or persons being carried touch the ground at all or team members become disconnected then the entire team is disqualified. Works best in large groups of 15-20

CROSS THE GREAT DIVIDE
Equipment: none except boundary lines
Objective: communication, cooperation
Object: to cross the area without becoming detached
Players line up with sides of feet touching. Group has an area which everyone must get around or across without feet becoming detached. If their feet become detached, the group must begin again.

RING CROSS
Equipment: carpet squares for everyone, boundary lines
Objective: cooperation, communication
Object: line up by birthday and reverse the order by stepping on carpet squares
Each member gets one square. They may not touch the ground. The squares may not touch each other. Have the group line up by the order of their birthdays. They are to cross the area so they land on the other side in the reverse order. In crossing they may only step on the squares and the squares must not touch each other or they start over again. You may step on someone else’s square.


BODY PARTS MOVING
Equipment: record : Hap Palmer, Movin,
Objective: enhance body and spatial awareness, cooperation
Object: in groups of three move through space attempting to follow challenges
Move with: three feet touching the ground with hands on ankles Five body parts on the ground Some body parts at a medium level and some parts at a low level, All players on their side and connected to each other One person at a low level and two persons at a high level All players making a round and low shape, Lots of noise without using feet or mouths, All backs touching and very fast, Body parts being used so the group looks like a spider

TAKETAK TIE
Equipment: one hula hoop for each student
Objective: cooperation, awareness
Object: to spin a hoop so it falls on the ground at the same time as our partner’s hoop
Pairs of students, each with a hoop, try to spin hoops with the same speed and force so the hoops fall on the ground and stop at the same time.

TELEPHONE NUMBER DANCE
Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation, communication, creativity
Object: to create a group dance based on a seven-digit telephone number.
Students are divided into groups of 14 or 7 and given a 7 digit telephone number. Each pair of students within each group receives a telephone number digit and is responsible for creating movement to represent this digit. For example, 3 might be three arm circles. Each pair of students teaches its number movement to the rest of the group. After each group practices performing all seven-movements in sequence, they perform their dance for the rest of the class, and the class tries to guess the telephone number.

KNOTS Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation
Object: to form a knot by holding hands in a group and untie it
To form the knot, stand in a circle, shoulder-to-shoulder, and place your hands in the center. Now everybody grab a couple of hands. Do not hold hands of the person standing next to you or the same hands of one person. Now untie it. You may have a leader point to one at a time to do something to untie or just do it as a group.

RED HANDED
Equipment: marble or something equally small
Objective: cooperation
Object: pass the marble without the it knowing who has it
Form a circle and put the it in the middle with their eyes closed. Give someone the marble and they start passing it from person to person. The best method of passing is to hold the marble in one fist, palm down, and drop it into the palm-up hand of the next person. Then s/he passes it from one fist to the other and on. The it tries to see who has the marble and taps the fist. If wrong they get to guess again. If right that person becomes the new it.

WANDS
Equipment: pair of 12-48inch wooden dowels or wands for each player Objective: rhythm, cooperation
Object: develop a rhythmic pattern of tapping sticks to a chant or music
Stand in a circle holding the stick vertically in front of you. Establish a rhythm and begin adding variations. Maintaining the rhythm, click your two sticks together every few beats. Then, between touching them to the ground, click one or both of them against your partner’s sticks or your neighbors’ on either side. Try various combinations of all these. You may begin tossing sticks through the air to each other in time with the rhythm.

CATERPILLAR
Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation
Object: to roll over bodies lying side by side and move as a group to a designated spot
Everyone lies on their stomachs, side-by-side. Make sure you’re packed really closely together. Now have the person on the end roll over onto her/his neighbor and keep rolling down the road of bodies. When s/he gets to the end of the line, s/he lies on her/his stomach, and the next person at the other end starts rolling.

THE REVERSING PYRAMID
Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation
Object: reverse the pyramid by moving only three people
Divide your class into groups of 10 and ask those 10 people to arrange themselves into a 4-3-2-1 standing pyramid, like this Once pyramidally arranged, ask that symmetrical group of 10 to reverse the apex and base of the pyramid (triangle) by moving only three people. (page 109 The Bottomless Bag)

GIMME A LEG TO STAND ON
Equipment: mats and spotters
Objective: cooperation
Object: see how many anatomical contact points are necessary to support a group of 10-12 people off the floor.
Get a group of 10-12 people on a mat and tell them to have as few as possible body parts touching the ground.

EVERYBODY UP
Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation
Object: to gradually keep adding people to the group so that while holding hands, feet touching, starting in a seated position to stand upright together
Start with two people facing one another so that the bottoms of their feet are opposed, knees bent, and grasping each other’s hands. From this position try to pull up to a standing position. Ask someone to join and keep doing it. To be successful you must: have hands grasped, feet in contact, and all buttocks are off the ground at about the same time.

POPSICLE PUSH-UPS
Equipment: none
Objective: arm strength, cooperation
Object: try to get your entire group supported off the ground with only the participant’s hands touching the ground- hands only.
You may just say the above directions or demonstrate having one person lie down on the ground as it to do a push-up. The second person lies face down, perpendicular to the first person, so that the tops of his/her feet are on top of the first person’s lower back. Each person does the same. On a signal, everyone does a push-up and, if done together, there will be four raised bodies, with only eight hands touching the ground.

HULA HOOP PASS
Equipment: hula hoop attached to stances or poles of some kind or suspended from basketball goal
Objective: cooperation
Object: get everyone through the hoop without touching the hoop Have mats under you for protection. Try to get the entire group through the hoop without touching it.

FLYING HOOP JUMP
Equipment: climbing rope, 5 hoops, box or pile of mats 2-3 feet high
Objective: cooperation
Object: for all of the students to get into the hoops without stepping out or falling
Have the group stand on a box or mats. A climbing rope is within grasping reach. Five hoops are placed 3-4 feet in front of the mat. The object is for all of the students to get into the hoops without stepping out or falling. Once they accomplish this, remove a hoop.

CONE TOWER
Equipment: box of ice cream cones, or cardboard cones or cups, ball, ruler
Objective: cooperation
Object: have the team create a tower as high as they can that will still allow a ball to pass underneath
Using the cones or cups build a tower as high as you can but still allow a ball to pass underneath. Measure it with the ruler to see who has the highest.

RIVER CROSSING
Equipment: 2 scooters, rope, 2 rubber rings
Objective: cooperation
Object: team to cross the area without touching the floor
Give the students the scooters and rope and rings and have them transport themselves across the river without touching the floor. If they do they have to go back.

BALANCE BEAM SWITCH
Equipment: balance beam, mats
Objective: cooperation
Object: arrange the group on the beam in alphabetical order
Have all the students (no more that 7-8) sitting on the beam and then tell them they must be standing in alphabetical order (first or last names). They can not touch the floor or the legs of the beam. Use a spotter.

CIRCLE SIT
Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation
Object: to have everyone sitting on each other’s laps in a circle
Have the students get in a circle all facing one direction. The object is for everyone to sit on the person’s lap behind them without the group falling. It works if everyone sits down at the same time, but that’s the part they need to figure out for themselves. Once they have figured out how to do it, you can see how long they can hold themselves there without falling, each time trying to beat their own time.

SNAKE IN THE GRASS
Equipment: none
Objective: dodging, honesty, teamwork
Object: avoid being tagged
No one is eliminated from this game. You begin with one or more students lying flat face down. This is the SNAKE. All other students must touch the snake lightly with a fingertip. Stress doing this without poking, tickling, and not on the head or bottom. When a teacher or leader says SNAKE IN THE GRASS, The snake must chase all the other children on his/her hands and knees, hands and feet, but not only on feet i.e. no standing up. If touched one becomes a snake and tries to help the original snake get all the other players. Game is over when all players are turned into snakes. Sometimes try to trick the group and say SNAKE IN THE GARDEN, OR GARAGE, OR GRAVEL, ETC. so students have to stay touching the snake until the last moment.

HUMAN LADDER
Equipment: one dowel rod for every 2 students. Dowel rods should be approximately 18 long and ¾ -1 in diameter.
Objective: cooperation
Object: one will attempt to walk across the ladder held by their teammates
Students should find a partner. Have each partner group hold a dowel rod between them at about waist high level. Each partner group should face each other and stand shoulder to shoulder with another partner group. You can split the class up into small partner groups (3-5) or group the entire class together. The formation will appear as a ladder with students being the rails, and the dowel rods being the rungs. One student will then attempt to walk across the ladder. The walker should be instructed not to stay on any one rung for a long amount of time, but the walker also should not run. One variation on this is to have the pairs at the beginning of the ladder move to the end of the ladder as soon as their rung has been walked. This will make a never-ending ladder. Use mats and spotters.

TARANTULA CHALLENGE
Equipment: clothesline, two volleyball standards and wall rings, mats
Objective: cooperation
Object: to travel through the web without waking the tarantulas
The 3D spider web is made of clothes line, two volleyball standards and the wall rings attached to the wall. The two standards were approximately 5 feet apart and 6 feet from the wall. Attach the rope to the rings on the wall initially then out to each standard. The web is obviously in a triangular formation which gives it the 3D effect. Place mats on the floor and hang spiders from the web using fishing line. Every member of the group has to travel through a 3 dimensional spider web without waking the sleeping tarantulas. All members must successfully cross through in order to complete the task. If any person wakes the spider, the whole group must start over.

WHITE WATER RAFTING
Equipment: trapezoid (or folded mat), 2 pillo polo sticks (or plungers), 30 white wiffle balls (or any small ball)
Objective: cooperation
Object: to travel across the white water without tipping over or touching the floor
The water is rougher than a normal river. Your group has to travel on the raft (mat), using oars (plungers or polo sticks), on the white water (balls) underneath the raft. The key is keeping the balls underneath the raft at all times. As the balls roll out the back, they need to be gathered and passed to the front of the raft.

TUG OF PEACE
Equipment: tug-of-war rope
Objective: cooperation
Object: all holding the rope, two teams facing each other, and balanced
Two teams are arranged as if they are going to play tug-of-war, but they try to achieve a static balance with the rope instead. All players try to lean back far enough so that they are out of balance, but the two teams stay balanced.

COMET CHASE
Equipment: cage ball
Objective: cooperation, teamwork
Object: avoid being touched by the cage ball
The players are divided into two teams with one team having two-thirds of the players. The team with two-thirds of the players evenly spreads apart (5-7 feet) forming a large circle. The team with one-third of the players forms a smaller inner circle spaced approximately 4 feet away from the outer larger circle. The cage ball is approximately 4 feet away from the outer larger circle. The cage ball is placed in the Comet’s Path . A player is selected and placed approximately 8-10 feet in front of the cage ball. On the teacher’s command, the player begins running and the rest of the players start moving the cage ball and try to catch the running player.
SUGGESTIONS: Rotate the players from the inside circle to the outside circle. Rotate runners. Reverse the game by having the runner attempt to catch the cage ball. Have the students try the game in a kneeling position.

SECRET HANDSHAKE
Equipment: a small container with about 20 to 40 cards, each with a body-part word or action written on it, one word or phrase per card (examples: nose, elbow, twirl, knees, shout, jump, clap, skip, crab walk, karate kick, hip, jog, hands, etc.)
Objective: cooperation
Object: come up with their own personalized Secret Handshake using the three actions or body parts
Have one child in the class reach into the small container containing the different phrases or words. The child pulls out three cards to be included in the Secret Handshake. The activity cards have one body part or motion on them. For instance, one card might say hands, and another crab walk, and another karate kick. The students are then paired up and given a few minutes to come up with their own personalized Secret Handshake using the three actions or body parts-put into any order—which were chosen at the beginning of the activity. The partners should be able to repeat their handshake at least three times with it looking the same each time. At the end of a few minutes, have half of the class show off their handshake to the other half, then repeat so all students have had the chance to show their handshake.

THROW AND GO
Equipment: hula hoop per set of students, a different throwing object in each hoop (es. Nerf balls, tennis balls, foam dice, deck rings, footballs, bean bags, etc.)
Objective: throwing and catching, teamwork
Object: throw and catch with a partner
Line the hula hoops in a straight line with 1 throwing object in each hoop. Have students get back-to-back with a partner, then get on each side of the hoops. On Go students throw object back and forth to each other until the whistle (or music stops). On the whistle, each set shifts to the left leaving the last set on the left to run to the first hoop which is now empty. If the running set of partners gets to the first hoop and all the throwing objects are in their respective hoop before 10 seconds the class gets a point, if not the teacher gets the point.

TWISTED SISTERS DISCO INFERNO
Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation, communication, problem solving
Object: solve the problem of lining up holding hands and ending up with their arms folded across their chest.
Have a small group of students (5-6) hold hands in a straight line, all facing in the same direction. The person at the end puts their hand up against a wall or holds onto a pole. The task is for everyone, including the person with their hand around the pole or up against the wall, to end up with their arms folded across their chest. None of the students can let go of their hands and the person at end must keep hand on the wall or pole. There are 5 known ways to solve this problem. Give the students plenty of time to discuss possible solutions.
SOLUTIONS TO TWISTED SISTERS DISCO INFERNO
If you are setting this up correctly, you should have a line of students holding hands in a straight line. One end person is either holding onto a pole or has their hand against a wall, and the other end person is at the end of the line with one hand free. One solution to this problem is that the end person who is free to move, leads the entire group under the arm of the person attached to the pole or wall. This end person continues to lead the group under the wall person’s arm again and again until everyone has their arms crossed. Finally the end person turns and faces the opposite direction w/o taking their arm off of the wall (this crosses their arms). A second solution is by going off of the disco inferno theme (a late 70 s Staying Alive Dance move). Everyone crosses their arms overhead in a disco like turn to cross arms. If you would like more possible solutions or you would like to share alternative ways that your students have come up with please e-mail HYPERLINK mailto:pec@vt.edu pec@vt.edu HYPERLINK http://pe.central.vt.edu/twistredsolutions.html http://pe.central.vt.edu/twistedsolutions.html

DONÕT TOUCH ME
Equipment: eight inch spot for 5-16 people, or a cone for 18-26 people, or a hula hoop for larger groups, stopwatch
Objective: cooperation, communication
Object: for everyone to touch the object in the middle and switch places with his partner as fast as possible without touching anyone.
Place the spot, cone, or hoop on the ground in the center of the circle of people. Pick a partner from across the circle. Each person should have his/her own partner. The object of this game is for everyone to touch the spot and switch places with their partner as quickly as possible without touching anyone in the process. While you are in motion, say Don’t touch me! like you mean it until you have reached your partner’s position. Time the overall time it takes the group to accomplish the task. Each time someone touches someone else, one second is added to the group’s overall time.
Variation: round one as in above,.
Round two: each person finds another spot across the circle, once found look down at the floor, repeat the crossing without a touch and without looking up.
Round three: each person finds another spot, they also pick someone standing across from them, this time when they cross they need to walk up to their selected person and greet them, don’t touch anyone else.
Round four: place a hula hoop or small circle on the ground in the center of the circled group. Round four is timed. Each person finds a spot across the circle. This time on the signal the group must switch sides without touching and each person must step in the hula hoop as they cross. There is a five second penalty for each touch. After the group has tried once, determine their first try time. Allow the group time to problem solve and come up with their plan to better their time.
ANOTHER SUGGESTED ROUND: have the participants pick a spot, put their hands up in front of them for bumpers and then close their eyes. Try to cross without any touches. Allow the group to problem solve and come up with a plan.

KNOT
Equipment: ten foot rope, 30-50 foot rope which is a different type from the 10 foot rope
Objective: cooperation
Object: team ties an overhand knot at the secured end of a long rope without touching the secured end.
Tie the two ropes securely together to make a longer rope. Tie the other end of the shorter rope to a stationary object such as a column, doorway or post. Start the activity asking, How many people know how to tie a simple overhand knot? Ask everyone in the group to line up and grab the long rope with one hand. No one should be holding the shorter rope that is attached to the longer rope and secured at the end. The goal of the group is to tie a simple overhand knot in the short rope without touching the short rope in the process. The leader should be able to easily identify the knot when you are done. Everyone can slide along the long rope, but cannot let go of it or trade places with anyone in the line. The short rope cannot be touched. The long and short ropes cannot be untied.
One solution strategy: The whole team should slide toward the loose end of the long rope to create some unoccupied space on the long rope. The person closest to the short and long rope connection forms a loop in the excess long rope and steps through the loop. The rest of the group will also have to step through he loop just like the first person. When everyone is through, the team should have a loosely tied overhand knot. The team can maneuver the loose knot toward the short rope and pull it tight in the short rope with a little work. Most teams seem to send the person at the loose end of the long rope around the group to form the knot. That strategy will work, but may be more confusing.

FING FONG FOOEY
Equipment: none
Objective: math skills
Object: creates a way for a group to decide who will do or get something.
The activity starts off like the Rock, Paper, Scissors game except that each person will hold out 1,2,or 3 fingers after the count. With everyone in a circle, count off (fists striding open hands) fing, fong, fooey and end with everyone’s fingers pointing showing their choice of 1,2,or 3. Add the number of fingers exposed. Then, starting with yourself, count each person around the circle until you reach the total number fingers counted. The last person counted is it. For example: You have five people in a group and all together you say fing, fong, fooey. Add the number of fingers showing (let’s say it’s 10) then count each person around the circle until you reach 10. In this case, the person right next to you is it .

GIANT TEXAS LIZARD EGG
Equipment: 1 bowling ball, at least one 3-6 foot rope per participant, a milk crate or canvass bag.
Objective: cooperation
Object: move a bowling ball across the floor and into a basket using ropes.
You have found yourselves in the middle of a crisis. An egg from a giant Texas lizard has rolled from its nest and needs to be replaced before the mother returns. Unfortunately, the shell of the lizard egg has properties of the adult lizard’s tail: it emits a sweet odor but is highly toxic. Fortunately for you, a game warden has left some specially treated ropes nearby for just such an incident. The ropes have been treated with radiation to eliminate the possibility of a premature hatching. The radiation is at tolerable levels, however, over-exposure causes instant and terrible side effects such as blindness, muteness, or confusion. Over-exposure occurs when a person touches his own rope with more than one hand. Somehow you must discover a way to move the egg, without breaking it, back into its nest before the mother returns. Be sure not to contact the egg with anything but the treated ropes. Don’t over-expose yourselves…. And don’t even try moving that nest. Giant Texas lizards are especially sensitive to movement of their nests.

RADIATION CONTAMINATED MATERIAL
Equipment: strings, large elastic band, pin or styrofoam cylinder, crate or box
Objective: cooperation, communication
Object: move the contaminated material to the box without touching it and only using the string and elastic band
Get 8 people and have 4 hold the strings, while facing each other, equally distanced from each other. The stings are attached to and elastic band. The four that are holding the strings should close their eyes or have blindfolds. The other 4 get a partner of the string holders and act as their eyes. The pin is in the middle of the 4 people with the strings. Pull on the strings and the elastic will open so you can put it over the pin and pick it up to bring it to the box. Each non-blindfolded person is telling their partner how much to pull and which way to go.

GUTTERBALL
Equipment: inexpensive quarter-round sticks (the wooden or plastic trim sticks that are used to cover the edges of wall corners). Any hardware store will have a selection. Buy the cheapest the store has. The simulated wood is best because it bends instead of breaking. A steel ball, or marble, a stop watch
Objective: cooperation
Object: roll a ball from person to person as quickly as possible without dropping it.
Everyone stands in a circle, and has a gutter. (You can pair up and share a gutter.) Use the gutters you have to transport this ball from the first person to the next all the way around and then back to the first person. Now that you have the feel for the task, try to send the ball through the process as fast as you can, beginning and ending on the first person’s gutter. This time there will be a few constraints for solving the problem. No one’s gutter can be skipped. Gutters cannot touch each other. Gutter per person method-your own pinkies must be touching each other all the time. Gutter per pair method- Each person must choose one end of the gutter to hold and hold it within three inches of the end. People cannot touch the ball as it travels from beginning, through the process and back to the beginning. If the ball falls from a gutter, the process must be restarted.

THE HOUSE
Equipment: one 30-40 foot rope. A retired climbing rope works well.
Objective: cooperation
Object: Use a rope to form a house.
Ask the group to pick up the rope. Tell them they can slide their hands along the rope, but they can’t let go and /or trade places in the line. Their task is to form a house or an envelope, whichever they prefer, without the rope doubling back on itself. You may need to provide a sketch of the end product for them to see. (Page 79, Zircon Gorilla)

PHOTO FINISH
Equipment: rope for start or finish line (optional), Polaroid camera (optional)
Objective: cooperation
Object: everyone on a team crosses a finish line at exactly the same time.
Everyone must start behind he starting line and go toward the finish line and cross the finish line at exactly the same time. If someone finishes before or after anyone else, the whole team tries again from behind the starting line. The team has an unlimited number of tries.

PLASTIC WRAP
Equipment: a roll of very inexpensive plastic wrap cut to four inches wide.
Objective: cooperation
Object: a group moves from one side of a room to another as fast as they can as a unit wrapped by plastic wrap.
The group gathers in a tight clump, shoulder to shoulder. Take the four inch wide roll of plastic wrap and begin wrapping it around the whole group at about waist height. Make about 5 rounds while emphasizing to the group that they should not break the band holding them together and they should not take it off the group. Once they are wrapped up, ask them how fast they think they can get from one side of the room and touch the other side of the room. When they have guessed, time their travel and celebrate the effort regardless. Ask them if they could travel the same distance in a shorter time. Yes is almost always immediately the reply. Time them again when they have problem solved enough. Ask everyone to move to the center of the room and back away from the center of the circle until the band breaks or they just can’t move back anymore. When you use good stretchy plastic wrap, the circle often stretches 30 feet in diameter or more and people see that they just had to stretch their boundaries to accomplish their goal.

PORTABLE ZIG-ZAG
Equipment: three portable zig-zag boards, at least fourteen 8 ½ inch rubber or carpet spots. Each of the three zig zag boards consists of a long 2x 4 board, two eight-inch 2x4 boards, two eight inch in diameter circular boards, and a four-inch 2x4 and with a four-inch piece of board from the same type of wood as the circles. All the pieces are fastened together with dry wall screws. Each long 2x4 board is a different length.
Objective: cooperation
Object: team uses the zig-zag boards to travel from point A to point B on the spots without touching the ground.
Place spots on the floor at intervals that will exactly match your beams. A bit of masking tape under each spot will help it stay in place. The spots will be placed in pairs, side-by-side, except for the single spot at the beginning and the end. A pattern of long-short-medium-long-medium-short-medium (14 spots) works well in most spaces and gives the activity a variety of dynamics such as planning, space issues, individualism vs teamwork, etc. Feel free to place the spots around corners to increase the communication difficulty and make the end of the journey a surprise. The team members cannot touch the ground and the teams cannot touch the ground. The spots protect the beam pads from the ground, but the stationery spots cannot be touched by the participants. Spots cannot be moved. The whole team must cross from here to there maintaining physical contact the whole way.

THE STAR
Equipment: 40-50 foot rope tied to itself to form a large circle
Objective: cooperation
Object: the whole group creates a five pointed star (the kind that crisscrosses in the middle) with a circle of rope.
Everyone in the group grabs the rope and gets into a circle. Inform everyone that they cannot let go of the rope or trade places with the people next to them to accomplish this challenging task (although they can slide along the rope). The goal of this activity is for the whole group to create a five pointed star with the rope (the kind that crisscrosses in the middle). Once they think the task is complete, ask them to slowly lower the star to the ground and step back to admire their work.

BARN YARD
Equipment: none (blindfolds)
Objective: cooperation
Object: the participants are asked to form their animal groups without talking
A great activity to form small groups (stress safety). Each participant is privately assigned an animal, if four groups are needed ¼ of the group would be assigned dog, ¼ of the group cow, ¼ frog and ¼ cat. Once all have been assigned an animal the group is blindfolded or asked to close their eyes, hands up for bumpers. The participants are asked to form their animal groups without talking, they can only make the proper animal noise to locate the others in their group.

DIMINISHING LOAD PROBLEM
Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation
Object: to get all participants across this void
A line is drawn as a boundary or start in front of the group. A second line is drawn 15-20 yards away, the finish. Each line goes on for infinity therefore it is impossible to go around the void between the start and finish . The object is to get all participants across this void. Anyone that touches the ground must return to the start. The only person to walk across and stay is the last. Do this in the least amount of trips.

FOUR QUAD (FORK WAD)
Equipment: two ropes (stretch cord works well), enough colored balls so that each participant will have two and the balls will be of four different colors (colored paper rolled into balls and taped will do), bag, stop watch
Objective: tossing and catching skills, cooperation
Object: see how long it takes the group to separate the balls by color into the four grids.
Split the group into four equal subgroups. Each group is assigned a square, the squares are arranged similar to a four square court with no outside boundaries. Four volunteers hold up two ropes tightly separating the four groups approximately chin height. Each participant is asked to take two balls out of a bag without regard for the color. The problem: on the instructors signal the objective is to see how long it takes the group to separate the balls by color into the four grids. The rules: the balls must be exchanged by a toss over the dividing line, the balls may only be held by the hands (no underarm stuffing), each dropped ball is a five second penalty and remains on the ground for a final count, each touch of the dividing line is a ten second penalty.

READY AIM FIRE
Equipment: two soft balls (nerf balls, rolled paper balls, sock balls) per pair, pins
Objective: cooperation, communication, tossing
Object: knock down all the pins
Have the group get into pairs which ever way you prefer. Designate one partner as the launcher and one as the weapons guidance system. The launcher is equipped with two soft objects. The launcher is also blind folded )or eyes closed). On the signal, the weapons guidance directs their launcher into position to fire on any pin. Once the launcher has been readied and aimed the guidance announces fire and a missile is launched. Once the launcher has fired both missiles the guidance system must direct their launcher to retrieve any discarded missiles and continue to launch. The objective is to knock down all the pins. Rules: each launch must be from the chest out, no over arm throws, the guidance system may not touch the launcher or the missiles. After the allotted time cease fire and compare pins. Switch roles and play again.

NUCLEAR TRANSFER
Equipment: frisbee or disc with 10-15 eight foot ropes connected around its rim, a 2 liter soda bottle and a start and finish area designated
Objective: cooperation
Object: to lift the bottle (nuclear safe area) with the disc using only the ropes and transfer it to the finish area (nuclear safe area).
8 students hold onto the ends of the ropes and attempt to transfer the bottle to the finish line. If the bottle falls the group starts again.

BIG TURTLE
Equipment: mat per group
Objective: cooperation
Object: to walk on hands and knees together with the turtle shell on your backs
A group of about 7 or8 children get on their hands and knees under a large turtle shell and try to make the turtle move in one direction. Younger kids lay down first and need to be given extra directions about working together. The older ones can try to get the turtle to go over a mountain (bench) or through an obstacle course without losing the shell.

BIG SNAKE
Equipment: none
Objective: cooperation
Object: get the snake to be connected to everyone in the class, roll over and curl up and sleep
The children start by stretching out on their stomachs and holding the ankles of the person in front of them to make a two-people snake that slithers across the floor on its belly. They soon connect up for a four-people snake, and eight-people snake, and so on, until the whole group is on Big Snake. At various lengths, the children like to see if they can turn the whole snake over on its back without its coming apart. The snake can also go over mountains, through holes, or up trees, or may curl up and go to sleep. I takes a coordinated snake to do these last two feats.

CATERPILLAR OVER THE MOUNTAIN
Equipment: mat, bench
Objective: cooperation
Object: to crawl on hands and knees while holding the ankles of those in front of you and crawl over the mountain
First the children work together either to construct a mountain or to move it into place. The mountain can consist of a bench, large playblocks, or anything else that appeals to them. Once the children have helped move the mountain they again work together to put the grass on top of the mountain. A mat draped over the mountain makes good grass. To form the caterpillar, the children line up on their hands and knees, and hold the ankles of the child in front of them. Four children can form one sixteen-legged caterpillar, which moves around the room and over the mountain. Caterpillars can link up with other caterpillars until one giant caterpillar is formed, which crawls over the mountain and slides down the other side. A whole-class caterpillar may need more than one mountain to crawl over. Caterpillars can also coil up or crawl into a cocoon.

THE ROCK
Equipment: 13 inch tire or a heavy-duty box, several mats
Objective: cooperation
Object: get the entire group on the rock (or off the floor) for a slow count of five.
All group members must balance on the rock (or be off the floor) for a slow count of five. The group needs to find a way to help each other maintain balance; that could mean group members will experience close encounters with one another. Place the rock in the middle of the mat away from walls. All group members must be off the floor (mat) and on the rock. All group members do not have to be touching the rock as long as they are off the floor. Once you have been on the rock, touching the floor (or mat) for even an instant means the group must start over with no one on the rock. No last names or put-down may be used.

THE SNAKE
Equipment: a tug-of-war rope
Objective: cooperation
Object: the group members create the shape with the rope and they must cover the rope with their bodies.
The group is given a list of shapes such as numbers, letters, names, words, or designs. The challenge is mastered when the group completes the number of shapes assigned. Make the shape using a tug-of-war rope. All group members bust lie on the rope. The tug-of-war rope must be completely covered by group members. The group must have each shape approved by the teacher before beginning another shape. No last names or put-downs. *CJ two sections. You must go back if a rule is broken.

THE POWER LINE
Equipment: horizontal bar set not higher than the tallest group member. (The bar can be half of an even or uneven parallel bar system or a rope strung between two standards.) mats,large crash mat for landing, 8-foot two-by-four board.
Object: group members try to cross over a horizontal bar while standing on a board lifted by group members
No group member may touch the Power Line. The board may not touch the Power Line. Group members who have crossed over the Power Line may not touch the floor on the beginning side of the Power Line nor reach under the bar to assist a teammate. All group members must remain on the floor mats except when going over the Power Line. If any rule is broken, the person making the mistake and one who has crossed the bar must return to the starting line

THE ELECTRIC FENCE
Equipment: high balance beam, mats, net and two standards or poles
Objective: cooperation
Object: all group members must successfully cross under the fence and stand on the exit ma on the beam.
The students must begin the task by getting on top of the balance beam. The students, may not touch the floor or mats between the entry and exit mats. Group members must go under the net without touching it. The students must get back on the topside of the beam before getting off the beam. Once a student gets off the beam and onto the exit mat s/he may not get back onto the beam. Only people on the beam may help group members hanging under the beam. Any broken rule requires the person making the mistake and one who has crossed the beam to start over.

THE GRAND CANYON
Equipment: climbing rope, vaulting box (or four folded mats stacked upon one another), and mats placed around for safety
Objective: cooperation
Object: all group members cross the Grand Canyon and are standing on the opposite canyon rim.
The Grand Canyon is the area between the starting line and the vaulting box. If any member of the group touches the floor anywhere in the Grand Canyon, a student who has successful crossed the canyon and the person who touched the floor must start over. If a group member falls or jumps off the vaulting box, that person and one other person must start over. The students swing over the Grand Canyon and onto the vaulting box. The group needs to help one another get onto both the rope and the vaulting box.

THE WHOLE WORLD IN THEIR HANDS
Equipment: cage ball, two tires or hula hoops
Objective: cooperation
Object: move the cage ball from one tire to the other without touching it with hands or arms and the ball not touching the floor
Choose an open working space. Group members start by sitting around the cage ball in a crab walk position. The may sit on the floor. During the challenge, they may move to other positions. The cage ball cannot touch the floor. The cage ball cannot touch the hands or arms of any group member. If a rule is broken, the ball must be returned to tire 1 and the group must begin the task again. No last names or put downs.

THE WALL
Equipment: large folding 12" landing mat standing on end and mats to lay under the12" landing mat.
Objective: cooperation
Object: the entire group has to cross over the wall
The12" landing mat may not fall over. Students may not grasp crash pad handles or ropes holding the crash mat together. Students may not step over the line dividing the mats





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Utility/Playground ball Activities for Elementary Level

Howard Weiss, Physical Education Teacher - PS 188, Queens, NY Email at Weissice@aol.com

Using Playground Balls for Cooperative Activities and Teamwork

Objective: To find exciting, unique, and fun ways to use inexpensive playground balls (I prefer to use the name utility balls) for cooperative activities and teamwork, while increasing manipulative, cognitive, and communication skills. Note: grade levels are not indicated. Most activities can be adapted to any grade or age level. Many games and activities have variations indicated by a number.

Part One - Games that require one ball for each player.

Please Don't Drop Me - Scatter formation. Walk around while tossing and catching your ball. See how many consecutive catches you can make at your challenge level. 2. Everyone tosses and catches a ball for one minute. The teacher or leader counts the number of times the balls are dropped. If five balls are dropped in one minute, stop the activity. See if they can drop the balls fewer times with each new round. 3. Now - At a given signal (music stops, drum beat, etc.), toss the ball and catch someone else's ball on a fly, one bounce, etc. 4. Ice Cream Cones - Use one traffic cone for each person. Place the ball on an inverted cone as if it were an ice cream cone. Toss the balls off the cones and catch on a fly, one bounce, two bounces, etc.

Wipeout - Play the music "Wipeout" by the Surfaris. When the guitars are playing, dribble your ball throughout the play area. When the drums come in, find one or more partners and press the balls together using your hands or any other body parts. Change levels each time the drumbeat changes. See how many different partners or small groups you can work with. 2. Use traffic cones as in Ice Cream Cones. Everyone travels holding his or her ice cream cone. When the drums come in, find one or more partners and touch ice cream cones, making sure the ice cream remains on the cone. Change levels as in number 1.

Mystery Tag - Scatter formation. Choose one person to tag. Do not tell the person whom you chose. At the go signal, dribble your ball and try to tag your mystery person lightly on the shoulder with your free hand. If you are tagged, freeze with the ball under your left arm. You can be freed if someone dribbles to you and shakes your right hand. 2. Choose more than one mystery person to tag. 3. Everyone is safe while dribbling the ball. If you lose control of the ball, you may be tagged. Free by another person picking up a loose ball and bringing it to you while they dribble their own ball. In this variation, if there are baskets, allow shots. However, anyone who shoots can be tagged while his or her ball is in the air.

Chinese Checkers - Form four teams by any method. Some different ways to form teams might be: marking balls with different color stickers, according to day or month of birthday, bounce ball one, two, three, or four times and find others bouncing the ball the same number as you, place ball between feet, knees, under right arm, left arm, on head, and find others doing the same as you, etc. If the class has thirty people, ask them to form two teams of seven and two teams of eight. If more than eight people are doing the same thing as you are, change what you are doing. Even out the teams as much as possible. The exact same number is not necessary. Each team begins in diagonal corners of the play area in a triangular formation. Everyone has a ball, except the top person of the triangle. Only the person without the ball may move. On the go signal, try to get your whole group from one corner diagonally across to the other side and reset the triangle. Remember, if you have a ball in your hand, you cannot move. If you drop the ball, retrieve it and go back to the start. See which team finishes first, or cooperatively, how long for all four teams to finish. 2. If a ball is dropped, the whole team begins again. 3. Require specific kinds of passes; for example, chest passes only. 4. Use only one ball for each team. Only the person with the ball may move.

Rhythms - Form groups of three to ten. Each group tries to establish their own rhythm of bouncing, dribbling, and/or tossing. The chosen pattern must be repeatable and presentable. Take turns presenting.

Multiple Partners - Scatter formation. Find a partner who was born in the same month as you. This is partner number one. Bounce pass at the same time to your partner. Find a new partner who is wearing the same color socks as you. This is partner number two. Toss underhanded at the same time to your partner. Find a new partner who likes the same drink as you. This is partner number three. Roll the ball at the same time to your partner. Find a new partner who likes the same TV show, movie, book, etc. as you. This is partner number four. Create your own activity with this partner. Have a central location to meet if you cannot find a partner. If one person is left over, form one group of three. After at least finding four different partners, the teacher or leader calls out partner number one, two, three, or four. Find that number partner and perform the skill you worked on with him or her. Keep calling different numbers. 2. Choose one skill to perform with all partners.

Number Bounce Ball - Scatter formation. On the go signal, dribble the ball while moving. On the stop signal, freeze and hold the ball against your stomach. The teacher or leader calls out a number. How quickly can you find sets of that number? Hold the ball so that it is touching everyone else's ball in your set. Have a central location if you cannot find a set to join. 2. Give a math example. For example, if x = 3, find sets of 4x minus 3x.

The Polite Game - Scatter formation. Object of the game is to keep control of the ball. Use any kind of ball skill. If you lose control of the ball, freeze and say, "please help me" until someone else picks up any loose ball and returns it to you. Make sure you say, "thank you." 2. Everyone does the same skill, or each one chooses a skill to perform.

Sports Exchange - Form groups of three or four. On the go signal, each member of the group performs a different sport skill. For example, dribble basketball style, dribble soccer style, perform volleyball set passes, or perform volleyball forearm passes. All move around the play area. On the stop signal, exchange balls with any member of your group and perform the new skill. 2. Use one-fourth playground balls, one-fourth basketballs, one-fourth volleyballs, and one-fourth soccer balls. Instead of forming groups, exchange with someone using a different kind of ball.

Part Two - Games that require less than one ball for each person.

Titanic - One playground ball for every five to six people, traffic cones or poly spots to mark the areas, and one stopwatch. Mark off a small area on one side of the play area. This area is the "Titanic". Place the playground balls on the Titanic. The balls are the life preservers. Everyone is on the Titanic. Tell them the ship is sinking. Their only salvation is to use the life preservers to get to dry land (an area on the far end of the play area). They may only enter the water if carrying a life preserver. No more than two people may share a preserver. Challenge the group to get all passengers and crewmembers to dry land as quickly as possible. Time the event. Try to do better next time. 2. Only one person may hold a preserver. No sharing. They may only move if they are carrying a life preserver. Anyone can stop (stand still) in the ocean and give up a preserver by passing it to someone else. They may then tread water and not advance. The preservers may not touch the ocean (floor). If a preserver touches the floor, the person who dropped it must carry it back to the Titanic. In this variation, all balls must be passed from one person to the other until everyone is safely on dry land.
Dragon Ball - One playground ball and one stopwatch. Scatter formation. One person begins as the dragon's head. He or she has the ball. The others may not move. The dragon's head cannot move until after it tosses, throws, or rolls the ball to another person. If that person catches or scoops up the ball, or the ball touches his or her foot or feet, he or she becomes the new dragon's head. If a catch or scoop is not made, or the ball does not touch the foot or feet, the dragon's head must retrieve the ball and try again from the spot the ball came to rest. After a successful catch, scoop, or touch, the dragon's head quickly joins the new head and becomes the dragon's tail (hold shoulders or waist). The game continues until there is one long dragon with a head, body, and tail. If the dragon accidentally breaks apart, the round is over. Begin again with a new dragon's head. Challenge the class to beat their best time. 2. Have several dragons' heads. Give one ball to each head. See which dragon becomes the largest, or see how quickly the whole class can become part of any dragon. 3. After all dragons have been formed, the head can attempt to roll the ball at the feet of another dragon. If successful, join on to that dragon and leave the ball alone. If unsuccessful, go to the back of the line and become the tail. The new head leads the dragon to the ball and tries again.

Scatter Ball - Ten to twenty playground balls, ten to twenty traffic cones, six hoops, and one stopwatch. Scatter the cones on one side of the play area. Place one ball on each cone. Spread the hoops out on the other end of the play area. The object of the game is to get all the balls into the hoops as quickly as possible. You may only move without the ball. The balls may not touch the ground until they are placed inside a hoop. A dropped ball must be replaced on a cone and rest on the cone for three seconds. Challenge the class to beat their best time. 2. Place about ten red playground balls on cones on one side of the play area, and place ten balls of assorted colors on cones on the other side. The class begins the game on the centerline of the play area. Tell them the balls want to switch places. Each person must decide whether to help the red balls or the assorted color balls. See which balls get settled on the opposite cones first. Anyone may switch his or her alliance after each round. 3. Same rules as number 2, but the class works together to switch all the balls from one side to the other. Time the event as in number 1, and try to beat the best time.

Hot Potato - One playground ball for every group of three to four. Pass or toss the ball around your group of three to four. When the music stops, the person with the ball must move to another group. Count one point for each time you get stuck with a ball. Object is to get the least amount of points. 2. Do not change groups. 3. To encourage good passes, if the ball gets away from your group, the person who tossed, passed, or threw the ball gets an additional point. If the receiving person could have controlled the ball, he or she gets the additional point.

Rainbow Run - One playground ball for every group of five or six, eight traffic cones, eight colored markers or crayons, nine index cards, and a stopwatch. Take one index card and draw eight straight lines on it. Each line is a different color. Hide the eight markers under the eight cones, which are scattered throughout the play area. Give each group one playground ball and an index card. Assign each group a different color to find. Each member of the group must be touching the ball at all times. If the group breaks apart, they must stop until they are all once again touching the ball. When the group finds their color, one member picks up the marker, draws a line on top of their index card, replaces the marker under the cone, and reports back to get the next color. The game continues until every group has all eight colored lines drawn on their card. As the groups finish, they may help another group. Time the event. See if they can do better next time. Change the location of the markers with each round. 2. Play competitively. See which group finishes first. 3. Fitness Run: Instead of colors, place a math example and an exercise (jumping jacks, crunches, pushups, etc.) under each cone. The group must figure out the math example and do the correct number of repetitions. When they report their score, they must have the correct number of repetitions before they can look for the next exercise.

Maze Ball - Ten to fifteen playground balls, two containers or bags to hold the balls, and a stopwatch. Instruct the class to form a maze from one end of the play area to the other. The balls are placed in a container next to the first person. An empty container is placed next to the last person. The balls must be passed from person to person as quickly as possible without any drops until they are all deposited in the last container. Every person must receive and pass every ball. If a ball is dropped, the person who dropped it must retrieve it, run back to the start, give it to the first person, and run back to his or her place in the maze. 2. Allow the class to form its' own maze. 3. Give specific directions. For example, the maze must contain at least one triangle and one square. 4. Have more containers, and divide the class into teams. Mazes can criss cross each other. Play for time, or play team against team. 5. Draw a map of a maze or several mazes. The team or teams must align themselves according to the map.

Step Back - One playground ball for every two people. Two people start close together. Each time a successful catch is made, they both take one step back. If the ball is dropped, they both take one step forward. See how far apart they can get. 2. Allow only specific kinds of passes. 3. Eye Contact - A person can make eye contact with someone else, thus changing his or her partner. Only the person without the ball can move. For safety purposes, there must be a clear path between passer and receiver. Encourage short accurate passes.

Dispatcher - Twenty to thirty playground balls, eight to twelve hoops, and a stopwatch. People work in groups of two (vans) or three (trucks). The hoops (homes) are scattered throughout one half of the play area. Choose four to six people to become the dispatchers. Choose an additional two or three to become the receiving agents. The dispatchers place the ball between body parts of the vans or trucks (no hands). The vans or trucks carry the balls (packages) to the hoops (homes) and deposit the balls into the hoops without using any help from their hands. If a ball (package) falls while going from one side of the play area to the hoop half, the vans or trucks may pick up the ball with their hands and go back to their dispatcher and try again. Once a van or truck successfully crosses the mid court line to the hoop area, a receiving agent directs them to a hoop (home). The packages must be evenly distributed (or as evenly as possible) in the hoops (homes). If a ball falls on the hoop side of the play area or falls out of a hoop, the receiving agent may place the ball back into the van or truck to try again. All packages must be delivered. Time the event. Change jobs and try to beat the best time.

Cooperative Catch - One playground ball for every three to five people and one stopwatch. Give one ball to each group. Suggest a locomotor skill. When the music begins, the group performs that locomotor skill while tossing the ball from one group member to the next. The group must establish an order of tossing and catching and keep this order. Count consecutive catches. Try to beat your best count. 2. When a ball is dropped, do the locomotor skill around the ball until a member of another group is kind enough to pick up the ball. 3. When the music stops, the person with the ball switches to a new group. 4. Change locomotor skills often. 5. The ball may be caught on one, two, or three bounces. 6. Team Juggle - add a ball or balls to each group. See how many balls the group can keep in motion.