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By Gerry Cernicky







A game plan must have all the ingredients  , recipes , equipment and experience to

make it work . The best way is to start at a foundation. Anything that is put into the mix

should have certain rules and or a sequence . But ,it must be realized without imagination,

creativity , enthusiasm and patience , some of the ingredients will need some

modification and adaptive essentials to make the activities appropriate.

In that case, you will need a Game Plan , survival tips , makeshift utensils , technology ,

integration  activities, and cooperative solutions for a standard of excellence.

There will have to be a safety plan in place for all

necessary corrections. There must be national standards and exemplary curricula that is

mapped out for success. Any game or activity should lead to a lifetime of fitness and the

overall education of the whole child . Preparations should include conferences ,

conventions , and in-services on the local , state and national level.

Before the game plan can be completed , and the activities can be shared , utilize

resources , lessons , skill related games and activities that are appropriate for each

grade level .

 A consummate approach is to start at an early age and try to institute activities that

will resort to improving on an independent and or previous performance, instead of a

winning or losing proposition.

Within each page of the book will be chapters that include many of the ideas already

mentioned . The main design will revolve around activity and healthy lifestyles. The

equipment should be distributed for each student or between partners which are

divided in areas , called grids, by cones or any safe object for boundaries .

 This type of arrangement will help with pressure situations in simulated

games . For example , the games will involve more offensive players than on defense.

To begin any activity or game , it must follow a plan of exercises ,flexibilities , rope

jumping and running skills to prepare the class for aerobic endurance and safety.



There will be a ( tip /trick) in bold type that will be placed in the chapters. Use these



ingredients to fulfill the need to manage an admirable Game Plan.



The purpose of the book, and the way it is arranged  will provide the necessary



information for not only physical education teachers, but also classroom teachers ,



parents ,community ,  recreational programs and home schooled



students. As each chapter unfolds , it serves as a foundation for all the  planning and



organizing in a scope and sequence approach. To get to the final product , all the



ingredients have to be formulated as a carry over to the next skill progression.



The inspiration  for Game Plan : Games and Activities for K-8thcame from my



interest in meeting the needs of all students , who come from varying backgrounds ,


family situations and ability levels. But, not all students come with the same level of



aspiration. The ingredients , the children , are the



prime movers in establishing the future of health and wellness . The  teacher



must have basic knowledge of the main course through education and experience.




The way the activities are presented provide an atmosphere of fun and have the students



begging not to leave the class and can’t wait until the next session. By including real life

drama situations, the teacher can rely on this motivation as an ideal



teaching tool . Competition is less likely to happen , and will be replaced by



improvement on previous performances. There are over one hundred games and 



activities that can be modified by rules , space and equipment requirements.



The book is unique in the fact that it is a simulation of a recipe  , which is filled with



tips , ingredients , and diagrams to make it easier to understand why and how to make

a successful final creation .





The introduction of the book starts with  the Game Plan for K –8th grade levels. It



is the basic foundation where everything begins. It describes all the crucial  essentials and



ingredients to plan and organize a lesson. Skill Progressions highlight Chapter 1 ,



which describes the scope and sequences necessary to build a foundation for success .



These are the building blocks to ensure the background of all lead up games and



activities . Included are examples of lead up games for the intermediate grades . The



primary students can participate with alternatives to space, size and rules , but it is



important at this level that a skill theme approach is more appropriate than playing



the lead up or real game. This will be explained and described in the chapters that will



follow . Chapter 2 describes games and activities for grades K-4th , which are set up with



modifications for fun and success. These are aligned with real life situations to inspire



creativity in real life , drama situations . Chapter 3 appeals to a more advanced activity in



grades 4th-8th.




There are lead up sports games and international activities that are introduced in an



adapted version of the real game . This is followed by integration



activities in Chapter 4 to preserve the importance for inclusion with the core subjects.



Chapter 5 includes cooperative games  and activities that prepares the students to



work together in  a non-competitive atmosphere . Holiday activities in Chapter 6



 contains seasonal games inherent to the interests of the students through media  and



fitness in real life situations .  Chapter 7 describes the importance of small sided



grid games to increase participation , strategy and decision making skills . The focus is



away from competition and more cooperation .

Chapter 8 is a homemade or makeshift formula of materials that can be used



 in the home as  a carry over from the  regular physical education class. The Addendum



includes diagrams  , which are included  as a resource to help with the description of the



game or activity .



There will be a ( tip /trick) in bold type that will be placed in the



chapters . Use these ingredients to fulfill the need  to manage a perfect game plan .



All of the activities and games were chosen from the varied interests of the students and



combined with 36 years  of teaching experience.  The games and activities in Chapters1-8

have stood the test of time. All the preparations and planning of the games



 have been tweaked, modified , and adjusted to meet all types of conditions . The students



have played a vital part in that process in the form of a suggestion box , essays and the



pure joy and participation  throughout all those years.



More unique aspects of the book are the inclusion of the tips ,tricks or survival techniques



after each chapter and the addition of alternatives , concept objectives and equipment for



a better understanding of the rules and modifications for success. This will benefit



educators in the process to understand how the games were chosen and  find



alternate ways to overcome any space , rule requirements , and ability levels of



the students .





For any game or activity to be successful , the planning will be the most important



detail . This means before the students enter the gym or field area , there has to be an



enthusiastic and creative approach to ensure the activities are educational and have



meaning . The curriculum should be developmentally appropriate and this should adhere



to the local , state and national standards .  No matter what kind of conditions , it will be



necessary to change in mid stream as if it were planned that way .



The direction the class will go is a determined effort to get away from playing the real



game . Emphasis on small sided games , personal improvement and focus on individual



performance  will be a recipe for more movement and personal assessment . The question



is how we approach teaching games and activities so they are appropriate to the age and



skill level of the students :



Have a few rules to get the game /activity started

·        Add more rules later as the game progresses

·        Master the skills before starting play

·        Give plenty of practice and performance cues

·        State corrections instead of what is wrong

·        Effective demonstrations –avoid showing the wrong way first

·        Show the correct way then the errors to avoid

·        Give appropriate encouragement

  • When in doubt have the class sit down during instructions –this keeps you at a high level of management
  • Develop an effective class management model and post with a limited number of rules on a bulletin board



There should be rules to fall back on and remember all safety concerns for the



gymnasium, playing field or classroom :



·        Always make boundaries with cones or safety devices

·        Never run to a wall or an object

·        Keep ice packs handy along with band aids , gauze and tape

·        Don’t move entire groups into different formations when engaging in new activities that require basic commands

·        Always have your back to the wall for full class vision

  • Use a stop and start device that the students recognize



An activity must have an educational purpose and not aligned with anything that



resembles recess . Games don’t teach skills ,they reinforce skills and teach children



how and when to use them. Games should include a thorough unit and parts of those



games can result in more learning than full scale ones. What skills are being



reinforced? What are the safety considerations , is the game enjoyable for all levels?



And are there any social skills that the game reinforces?



In selecting games you must remember that certain games have  a lot in common .



That is, tennis , volleyball and badminton require striking skills ; invasion games such



as basketball , hockey and soccer all involve dribbling against  a defender and an



opponents dribble . Make sure the activity reinforces the activity/game you will teach



Encourage quality practice . Modify games so students will get more time with the



ball and less skilled students will understand what is required of them. Set up the





boundaries before the game and never use walls ,sidewalks or trees as the boundaries.



Within the grids , the activities may include stations ,which allows the students to do



different activities or a  single activity in parts for more practice time. This makes it



easy to observe and gives immediate feedback.



     Each lesson should have a rubric or scope and sequence before the real or adapted




activity can be attempted. This means that equipment should be for each person or one




between two partners. The activities should be practiced in grids in small sided




games/activities. This ensures more touch time . Then, there are  more opportunities and




skills that are done at  a level that each student can progress at their own rate and move to




the next level when they are ready.




The concept objectives and the scope and sequence are vital parts of the Game Plan . The




national standards are the basic foundation  and along with an established rubric will pull




everything together.




The glue that seals the game plan is the ability to use visualization techniques . This




will prepare you for any unforeseen circumstances , and then have the ability to make




adjustments . This preparation includes a safety check  of equipment and visualizing the




students in action well before they enter the classroom or gym . It is at this time , to ask




questions of what worked or didn’t work in the past and why . By keeping  a daily log ,




blog or journal gives the opportunity to re-tool past decisions without loss of class time.




The visual drill makes the lessons easier to modify , and the ability to change in mid –




stream, will fortify you with all the measures necessary to display a developmentally




appropropriate activities.













The end product of any game or activity must have a foundation , which is cemented by

either rubrics  , a scope and sequence of skills or a curriculum mapping process . For



every game or lead up activity  to be successful it should be  inherent with the



opportunities that are given to the students . They will develop the skills according to



their abilities and be given  adequate chances to be successful in  a step by step



progression , which will be the basis of understanding and development of any lead up



game . In many instances , the original game or activity will be have variations and



modifications to make the game easier to learn and participate .



Within this chapter will be all the skills necessary to explain the background for the



games and activities that will follow . The skills will be listed , then an example of the



games will demonstrate how the skills are significant to make the game teachable and



essential to the overall success of the game or activity . It must be noted that the ensuing



modifications are changed to the students’ skill level and to be developmentally



appropriate. The skills will also be broken down into concept objectives . The scope and



sequence is a vital component and along with the content will demonstrate the need for a

well developed plan . Included are the following procedures  of skills , content , body and

space awareness , locomotor and non-locomotor skills , effort and relationships ,

balancing and object / mastery skills :



Skills :



  • Demonstrate locomotor and non-locomotor movements in a variety of activities


  • Develop movement patters utilizing concepts of body awareness, spatial awareness, effort and relationships


  • Demonstrate manipulative skills in a variety of activities


  • Demonstrate basic physiological principles of health enhancing physical fitness


  • Safety skills and habits with respect to self and others


  • Apply principles of health enhancing fitness to develop a physically active lifestyle


  • Demonstrate responsible social skills while participating in physical activity settings


  • Understand that physical activities provide opportunity for enjoyment,  challenge and self expression


  • Identify and analyze the structure  ,functions, and interrelations of human body systems.
  • Identify and apply the principles relating to the enhancement of health maintenance.

Content :




  1. Locomotor skills


  2. Non-locomotor skills


  3. Movement patterns


  4. Manipulative skills


  5. Lead up team sports


  6. Individual/Lifetime Sports


  7. Team and Game Strategies


  8. Rhythms and dance


  9. Aquatic skills


  10. General rules and procedures


  11. Safety procedures


  12. Social skills


  13. Team building skills


  14. Cooperative play


  15. Problem solving


  16. Decision making


  17. Leadership


  18. Risk taking


  19. Health related fitness


  20. Skill related fitness


  21. Target heart rate
  22. Principles of training
  23. Self assessment
  24. Weight training
  25. Aerobics

Scope and sequence


  • Locomotor and non-locomotor skills


  • Self or personal space


  • General space


  • Directions


  • Pathways, levels


  • Extensions


  • Body parts


  • Kinesthetic feelings


  • Body in space


  • Time , force, flow


  • Relationships with body parts, and people


  • Manipulative skills


  • Strike a moving object


  • Throwing at or to a moving object


  • Combining two or more locomotor and non-locomotor movements


  • Combing two or more manipulative skills


  • Timing movements


  • Keep objects in motion


  • Passing accurately in game conditions


  • Target heart rate/change


  • Flexibility, strength , endurance ,muscle strength/endurance


  • Cardiovascular endurance
  • Aerobic and anaerobic endurance
    • Exercise training principles


    • Body composition


    • Finding and measuring pulse


    • Classroom rules , procedures


    • Rules for games and activities


    • Safety procedures


    • Body awareness and control


    • Listening skills


    • Cooperative play


    • Respect for rules and others


    • Sportsmanship


    • Team building/problem solving


    • Team strategies


    • Skill progression


    • Low to high skill level progression


    • Passing accurately in game situations


    • Respect for individual differences





Body Awareness
arms/ legs/ head/ elbows/ knees /trunk
angular /curved/ twisted/ narrow /wide/ symmetrical /asymmetrical
swing/ sway/ twist /turn /stretch/ bend/ curl /shake/ rise/sink/push/pull




Space Awareness
personal space /general space /create space to open area /keep body between ball and defender/ deny space between goal and players/cover an area/move forward ,backward, sideward ,up and down/move in round and curved path/zig- zag path/straight path/





fast   movements/slow movements/accelerate and decelerate/free flowing movements/bound,


flow  ,stop quickly



inside /outside/between/front/behind/over and under/on and off/




  • Walk


  • Run


  • Jump


  • Hop


  • Gallop


  • Slide


  • Skip


  • Leap


  • Chase/flee


  • Dodge


  • Fake


  • Jumping and landing (height/ distance/to catch / on and off equipment/body control)


  • Long and short rope jumping




  • swaying 


  • swinging 


  • twisting 
  • turning
  • moving isolated parts of the body
  • hand and foot gestures



  • Rocking with chin to chest


  • Head to knees


  • Curved body shape




  • Stiff as a pencil


  • Tight muscles


  • Begin turn for abdominal(s)




  • Curved body shape


  • Chin to chest


  • Push with hands


  • Frog jump beginning
  • Stay in tuck
  • Backward


    • Curved shape


    • Head to knees


    • Push up


    • Stay tight in tuck




  • Base of support


  • Two , three, four  bases of support


Weight transfer (rolling/feet to hands, spring takeoffs



  • Balancing


  • Stationery balances


  • On equipment


  • On different body parts


  • In different body shapes


  • Inverted balances


Transfers weight to and from body parts


  • Combines skills on mats


  • Rolls in different directions


  • Body shapes in air


  • Body to express effort


  • Design shape sequences


  • Move to avoid others


  • Focus movement on speed


  • Use force speed with object


  • Move with a partner


  • Mirror a partner


  • Jump for distance


  • Jump for height
    • Jump a self turned rope


    • Jump/3 jump rope tricks


    • Jump in and out of long rope


    • Chase/flee/dodge/roll


    • Balance and weight transfer


    • Move from balances


    • Balance on moving equipment


  • Transfer weight on equipment


Kicking and Dribbling


  • Toward a target


  • Toward a traveling partner


  • Traveling and kicking for a goal


  • Change speed and direction


  • Avoid opponents in a game situation


  • Dribbling(hands)


  • Dribble with feet


  • Dribble with one hand / switch hands


  • Changing direction and speed




Throwing and Catching


  • Many different objects


  • To a partner


  • At different levels


  • For distance and accuracy


  • To a moving target


  • While traveling


Striking with Rackets and Paddles


  • Striking upward continuously


  • Striking downward continuously


  • Striking a ball rebounding from a wall


  • With a partner


  • In a game situation


Striking with long handled implements


  • Striking to a target


  • For distance and accuracy


  • Toward a traveling partner


  • Traveling and striking for a goal


  • Striking and dodging in a game situation


  • Striking off a batting tee


  • Correct strike techniques in a game situation




  • Moving to music in a variety of ways


  • Perform specific rhythmical patterns to music


  • Combines rhythmical patterns to perform a dance


  • Long rope jumping


  • Double Dutch


  • Rhythm gymnastics ( ball, ribbon, hoop)


  • Tinikling


  • Lummi sticks


The best way to use this chapter is to understand that the skills will be arranged in


sequential order , and from there, the students will continue through the skills in a


progressive manner according to their level of ability. The skills are taught from the very


basic to the advanced levels . That is , they practice the skills in order then move to the


next level until that skill is mastered .  All of the learned skills will be utilized in the


game or activity . If the activity appears to be difficult, the teacher will stop the activity to


either practice the skill or provide  a variation or modification , which will be adapted by


the size of the equipment , space , time  and rules . In games of high organization , it is


paramount to be engaged in small sided game  action .  A more specific rubric will follow


with game examples . Included in this chapter will be lead up , sports-related activities


that will involve appreciation of the activity and not the real game , but variations and


modifications for soccer / speedball , flag football , basketball , floor hockey , volleyball ,


rip flag rugby , wiffleball /softball , ultimate and gymnastic / tumbling activities .


The main importance in the primary grades includes mimetics and movement



exploration, which lays the groundwork not only for gymnastic/tumbling skills , but also



serves as a guide to all lead up skills and low organized games . In the primary and



intermediate grades , it is essential to include story plays to act out the myriad of skills ,

mimetics and integration to complete movement exploration activities. An example is to

utilize a book called “ Where The Wild Things Are “. The students are scattered

throughout the area in a woods-like atmosphere . They traverse through the gymnasium

and upon hearing the key words and mimetics will move with the previously learned

skills .  Music is added to entice more participation , safety concerns and confidence .






Also , set up tumbling mats , cones , deck rings , Frisbees , hoops , boxes , and any

available equipment for obstacles .







Once upon a time , a group of students took a nature walk to discover plants , flowers and



trees . The shadows cast eerie figures at each passing step .” Be careful not to trip over

any fallen logs or lame dogs . “  The shadows seemed to move in scary formations . The

sounds of the woods seemed very close now . An array offrogs  croaked in the distance .


Snakes wiggled their way through the rotted logs . The squishing water  from heavy feet.

disturbed a quarry of crabs .



One larger shadow seemed to follow the group with every cautious step . “We had better



ask Smokey the Bear for directions . “ Taking the water route appeared to be a better way

to get out of the woods and the large shadow . Using a row boat  was the best decision .

 And , the observing cranes  echoed their choice. That surely was a seal of approval  to

escape the large shadow , which looked like half animal and half person . The slippery

beach caused many students to either skip  , leap , jump or galloparound , through or

over the slimy pebbles to safety  and into the next wooded area . The shadow lurked

behind all the trees , ready to make an appearance. The sound of crushed leaves made the

group scurry in all directions , dodging and faking , around the monstrous trees . But,

one large tree seemed to move . One student leaned on that tree for a rest . The tree limbs

grasped and tugged at the suspected intruder . Even a swimmers crawlcouldn’t escape

the gnarly hands of the creature . “Run or slide for your life .” “ I will but I can’t move.”

A friendly smile calmed the scary atmosphere . After a few moments , it was realized that

there was nothing to fear and new friends were being made . There were mule kicks






of joy in the woods to ensure a safe journey  home. The trees were swayingandtwisting


andturningin all directions . And , the students wereswingingall parts of their torsos


for a happy walk with their new found friend , who wasn’t wild after all .



Another example is to read the book and follow each page and have the students act out

the skills , page by page . Use creativity and imagination to sustain more enthusiasm and



the joy of movement exploration .  The mimetics can use other venues such as , the circus



or seasonal and Holiday adventures .



The mimetics and movement exploration is a pre-requisite for the tumbling and



gymnastic activities. The skill progression starts with these skills and finalizes with

tumbling , rhythmic , balance beam and vaulting skills . As with all the progressions ,the



skills will be adapted and modified to meet the needs of all students .  The equipment

includes tumbling mats , tumbling blocks , “crash” mat landing area , low and high

balance beams , hoops , rhythm balls , jump ropes , vaulting horses and all available

equipment for obstacle courses and circuit work .



  • MIMETICS( primary grades 1-4th )


  • Frog, log , dog, cat


  • Snake , crab, bear


  • Kangaroo, crane, rowboat


  • Upswing( swing from knees to feet), egg, seal , mule kick


  • Slide/chasse, skip, leap, jump, hop, gallop




  • Straight


  • Arch


  • Pike


  • Straddle


  • Squat or tuck


  • Lunge




  • One body part


  • Two body parts


  • Three body parts


  • Four body parts


  • "V" sit , straddle sit , arabesque , "y" scale




  • Log roll


  • Shoulder roll


  • Frog jump and push


  • Incline roll( board and mat)45 degrees forward roll


  • Forward roll in straddle, pike , squat and no hands*




  • Crab


  • Egg roll


  • Back shoulder roll


  • Candle( leg up straight like a candle, hands under hips) roll back half way to hands touch/ return and repeat


  • Incline roll


  • Back roll in squat , straddle, pike*


  • Back roll to handstand( extension)*




  • Frog stand / tripod


  • Frog hand balance


  • Half headstand


  • Forearm stand


  • Mule kick


  • Short kick handstand( 45 degrees)


  • Handstand against wall / spotter


  • Handstand with spotter*


  • Backbend / spotting*


  • Walkovers / spotting*




  • Hurdle approach , correct steps cartwheel in low plane on line( ___________)foot  hand, hand , foot


  • Hurdle / cartwheel


  • Round off


  • Handsprings/ spotting*




  • Run /hurdle /approach with beat board land in crash mat –no vaulting horse


  • Landings :


  • Straight body jump/ land


  • Straddle


  • Pike


  • Squat


  • Turns Twists


  • Run/approach jump on and off short horse turns, jumps, twists , rotations in plane


  • Side leg vault( straight leg to side)


  • Squat


  • Straddle


  • Any turns , rotations




  • Walk forward , backward , sideward


  • Walking with equipment


  • Turns , 180 , 360


  • Sliding


  • Leaping


  • Galloping


  • Static balances


  • Cat walk


  • Slow run Dismount ,  round off and or  jump off


  • * All skills done with helper / spotter





An exemplary method to use the tumbling and gymnastic skill progressions is through a




circuit / obstacle course or a self testing procedure . The main theory is to have all the

students active and proceed through the rubric of skills at their own pace with guidance

and observation by the teacher .  The variations or modifications include other forms of

sports related skills such as skateboarding and track and field events . In this way , those

students who aren’t adept at the tumbling /gymnastic skills will be able to perform related

skills that meet the rubrics needs . That is , there will be a crossover between the skills as

follows : twists , turns , jumps , hurdles , and rotations. If the students are given

opportunities starting from the basic level , they will be able to correlate the relationship

between events and skills . Included will be the ability to land safely , approaches and

retreats ( dismounts ) .







In the self testing procedure , the students are assigned near arranged tumbling mats ,




which are scattered throughout the gymnasium . At each tumbling mat will be a traffic




cone with a sign posted with the skill that will be practiced. They will get many

opportunities to perform the skill and finish by being observed by the teacher . The




tumbling skills are posted with butcher –block paper on the walls or bleachers . At each




poster will be a marker , which the student will sign when the skill is completed

successfully.  Before this takes place , the students practice the skills during regular

physical education class.  Next , the students return to a different tumbling area and

proceed to another skill . They will be given opportunities to engage in alternatives if the

skills are too difficult to master in a scope and sequence procedure  as follows :




1.      Mat #1 – forward somersault or log roll

2.      Mat #2 – backward somersault or  egg roll , back shoulder roll

3.      Mat #3 – cartwheel or ½ cartwheel

4.      Mat #4 – handstand or short kick handstand , with a helper /spotter , mule kick

5.      Mat #4 – round –off or cartwheel with 1/ 2 turn

6.      Mat #6- frog head or hand balance or frog balance with help / spotter

7.      Mat #7- balances – “v” sit , straddle sit , arabesque or “Y” scale

8.      Mat #8- handsprings or with help / spotter

9.      Mat #9 –advanced skills (only)

10.  Mat #10- twists ,turns , rotations ,( 180 degrees or 360 degrees )













The students are arranged in six different groups , which have one skill to be performed




back and forth to the starting position . After each turn , they will switch to the next line

and finish the circuit until all six skills are completed . Use all the available equipment

for a variety of skills . This includes : hoops , cones , low balance beams , vaulting horse ,

tumbling mats , crash mat and any makeshift equipment to climb over or under and or

jump/hurdle over .  The circuit / obstacle course can be performed by grades 1-6th , but

with alternatives to ensure success and safety . Previously learned skills are practiced

during regular physical education classes .




1.      Run and approach the vaulting horse – jump on and off into a crash mat ( place folded mats in place of a springboard  or beat board  - the approach includes climbing onto the horse vault  as an alternative .

2.      Hurdle over a series of folded mats – ( hurdle , skateboard touches or turns ) [or separate the mats  4-5 feet apart and long jump from mat to mat ]

3.      Crawl under a series of broken hoops placed inside traffic cones

4.      Zig –zag inside a series of hoops , which are in a scattered formation

5.      Walk on a low balance beam or jump side to side

6.      Tumbling skill the length of the mat




Use music as a signal to switch to the next station . At station #1 will be the only place

the students return to the starting position since there won’t be an opportunity to vault

and land safely . To encourage participation and creativity , ask the students to add

related skills , which are safe and were previously practiced . 










After the circuit has been completed , they return to their starting positions and repeat the




skills , but this time play music . As they go through the circuit , turn off the music and

try to catch them before they have frozen in one place , with no movement . This will

count as a “gotcha “ , but at no time will be an elimination activity . On the next turn , if

they are in a safe position , the “gotcha “ is eliminated . Switch to the next place or

continue in order by going to the end of the next assigned group .










The skill progressions will eventually be utilized in either games of high organization or

small sided games . It is important to master the skills so that the games will have a free

flow of activity without interruptions . But,  make sure to stop the action if the skills need

reinforced and then proceed promptly to ensure there isn’t much down time . The skills

will be broken down into manipulative skills of  throwing and catching , kicking , short

and long handled implements ,  and striking .










  • Soccer


  • Toe taps -agility exercise


  • Inside foot pass


  • Outside foot pass


  • Inside foot trap


  • Outside foot trap


  • Dribbling


  • Around a partner


  • Between an obstacle


  • For speed and moving in all directions


  • Volley kick


  • Instep kick


  • Kick for distance


  • Kick for accuracy


  • Thigh trap


  • Stomach trap


  • Juggling


  • Stationery heading


  • Tackling


  • Goalie play


  • Throw in


  • Double leg jam( speedball)


  • Roll up( speedball)


  • Small sided games


The scope and sequence of skills starts at the basic level and after each skill is mastered ,



the next skill is practiced and then refined . It is best to have one ball for each student or



one between 2-3 partners. The type of ball is be a regulation soccer ball or any safe



surface or texture . This will encourage success and confidence .





Arrange the class into small sided game action with two cones for each team inside the



 grid area . The cones are placed 5-6 feet apart with one goalie  . The groups are arranged



with even or uneven numbers . Start the game with an inside foot pass to  a teammate.



Any ball that is kicked between the cones beneath head level scores one point . Extra



points are counted with the number of passes that lead up to the score .



Variations :



  1. No goalies


  2. Place a bowling pin between the cones for a knockdown score


  3. Change the distance between the cones


  4. Change the size of the grid area


  5. Exchange players from different grids


Many times there is a cross over activity that incorporates related skills into  a new



activity or game . The alternatives and modifications increases the interest of  a new



activity , which utilizes previously learned skills with newer ones of speedball.



The primary students should  use safety –type equipment such as nerf balls or plastic



balls . The rules are changed and the skills modified for success and confidence.





Arrange the class on each side of the mid court , which will divide the area into two grids



with a goal net at each side line area . Place two traffic cones about 6-8 feet away from



each post . The area inside the net and between the cones are the scoring zones . The



goalie play will include one player in each net and  4-6 players between each of the



cones . Any ball that is kicked into the net scores three points . A throw into the net



scores one point and a kick between the cones scores ½ point .



Start the game action with an inside foot pass . Any ball that remains on the floor can be



dribbled , passed , and kicked . A ball that is trapped  can be lifted to the hands using the



speedball skill of  jumping and flipping the ball from feet to hands(double leg jam) . A



bouncing ball can be juggled  from the body to the hands . Any player running with the



ball can be tagged to stop a possession . The ball is returned to the opposition at that point



with a pass to a team mate .  Tackling is permitted without any other body contact. All



goalies must roll the ball to a team mate . Any player who can master the speedball skill



of leg roll up , which is placing the foot directly under the ball and rolling the ball up the



leg , and to the hands(roll up) , can start running until being tagged  or stop after three



steps and try a throw in action to a team mate. Any ball that is misplayed from any pass



and receiving skill promotes playing soccer rules . After any score , the opposition rolls



the ball to a team mate . As an alternative , switch one group over the mid court line to



play against a different group .




  • Basketball


  • Dribbling with one hand/switch hands/crossover


  • Dribble around a partner


  • Dribble between obstacles


  • Dribble for speed and change directions


  • Dribble at different levels


  • Passing


  • Bounce pass


  • Chest pass


  • Baseball pass/overhead pass


  • Shooting ( hand placement)


  • Lay up


  • Short shot


  • Foul shot


  • Jump shot


  • Ball handling skills( figure 8 , around head ,waist and legs, double legs)


  • Mirroring ( defensive techniques)


  • Offensive patterns and movement


  • Small sided games


The skill progressions starts with the basic fundamentals of dribbling ,shooting ,

passing and defensive and offensive maneuvers . For more participation , there should

be one ball for every student or one between partners .  For example , each student is

equipped with one basketball . Demonstrate the shooting technique : Balance , eyes

on target , elbow under ball and follow through . The next level is hand placement

followed by shooting from short range , lay-ups , foul shot and longer attempts . Add

a defensive partner to engage in pressure situations .

For the primary students , the basket may be lowered , use a lighter ball or place  a

hula hoop over the rim for a shooting alternative . All various types of basketballs are

utilized to learn the techniques for success , confidence and fun .




The class is arranged on all the designated lines on the basketball / volleyball court.

Each student is equipped with one basketball . At a signal , they will attempt to

dribble the ball on the lines without losing possession . For the primary grades , the

ball may be dribbled in  a stop and start action .

Choose 1-2 students , who will be the Pac-Man dribblers . They will be equipped with

a different color or sized basketball . The Pac-Man attempt to steal the ball with  the

free hand or cause a loss of possession. Switch places if there is a dribbling or

possession error . The dribblers may move in any direction on the lines . As an

alternative , add more Pac-Man , change the size of the area or exchange the dribbling

skills with any designated locomotor skill .




Place 10 – 20 basketballs on the floor in a scattered arrangement . Use a deck ring or

frisbee to keep the basketballs in place . Arrange the class into partners . On  a

designated signal , the partners run to one of the basketballs . The first partner getting

the ball starts a two pass sequence with the partner . After completion , the ball is

returned to the original position . Establish a three minute time limit to complete as

many different basketballs . Give another trial to better a previous performance.  As

an alternative , change the types of passes , the number of successful passes and size

of the area . As an alternative , play music during the passing process , and when the

music stops , the player with the ball must dribble and chase after their partner . The

dribbler attempts to each tag their partner or stay within an arms length . Repeat the

procedure with the same or different partners.

  • Flag football


  • Stance /positions


  • Centering/receiving /lateral / underhand


  • Hand off and pitch out


  • Passing


  • Pass patterns


  • Catching


  • Punting


  • Place kicking


  • Defense-ripping off rip tag flags(mirroring)


  • Small sided games


The flag football skills will be broken down according to each class’s ability level and

alternatives will be included to make the progression easier to learn and understand .

This means that the final outcome will not be the real game but a lead up activity to

involve the entire class with makeshift rules and equipment . This includes nerf

footballs , rip tag flags , game jerseys and pinnies. For more touch time , the students

will engage in small sided game action .




Align the students into grids in three sections of the basketball court or on the school

grounds , which will be divided by traffic cones to ensure a safe activity . Establish

one group as the offensive team to start the game . Each team is scattered safely with

in the designated grid area .  The defensive team will try to either knockdown the ball

or intercept the throw. At this point , the teams will change possession . The object of

the game is to complete as many passes within  a determined time limit . After a

successful catch , that student must maintain  a stationary position . Give each pass

attempt a three second time limit to pass the ball to a team mate . The defense should

practice a “mirroring” technique to stay very close to an opponent  , and without any

body contact. Count the number of successful passes or deflections / interceptions .

Repeat the process to better a previous score .

Variations :

·        After five successful completions , the last receiver may run to a designated goal line for an extra bonus score .

·        If there is a ripped tag on defense , the defense gets the ball

·        Change the type of throws ( overhand  ,lateral or underhand )

·        After a designated time , exchange players into a different grid

·        Add a wall target for another completion after five successful catches

·        Use even or uneven number of players







Arrange the class into a scattered formation inside  a designated area , which is safely

marked away from the other activities . Each player is equipped with a rip tag and

belt in different colors . Use game jerseys or pinnies as an alternative  . The game

jerseys can be placed in the back pocket area or waist band .  Three or more different

colors will establish more participation and creativity or strategy . On a signal , one

color will attempt to steal as many oppositions rip tags in a designated time limit .

After that time has elapsed , call a new color to repeat the process . Repeat the

procedure and try to beat a previous score .

Alternatives :

·        If  a rip tag is taken , make an area(side line) to replenish the tag for re-entry into the activity

·        Give one color all the available footballs , which the team mates drop in a container(box) for an extra score . The container can’t be guarded and an opposing player may not enter a marked restraining circle . If a player ‘s tag is ripped off constitutes the loss of the ball and time to replenish another one .

·        Keep one player inside the restraining circle to receive a pass from a team mate  for an extra score .

·        Points are rewarded for rip offs and complete passes

·        Use even or uneven number of players

·        Change the size of the playing area




  • Volleyball


  • Throw ball against an object and catch


  • Throw ball over the net


  • Catch a ball-set over the net


  • Underhand serve


  • Overhand serve


  • Setting to self


  • Setting off a wall


  • Setting to a partner


  • Self set-hit over the net


  • Self set.-hit to an open space


  • Forearm bump


  • Dig


  • Set -hit to a partner


  • Return the ball over the net


  • Blocking


  • Correct technique in game situation


  • Small sided games


There are many alternatives for the lead up skills for the volleyball activities and



games . The variety of the volleyballs range from balloons and beach balls to a



regulation volleyball . The height of the net can be lowered to meet the needs of all



students . Also, the size of the playing area can be changed along with even or uneven



number of players .  The basic set up of the skill progression is best demonstrated by



partners or small groups for more participation and touch time .








Divide the players into small groups , which are scattered around the playing area.

Each group is equipped with one parachute and several volleyballs or  an alternate

ball for easier handling . Half of the group holds and flips the volleyballs off the

parachute ; the other group of players surround the parachute .  Any ball that is

flipped off the parachute is returned with any previously learned skills . For the

primary grades , it may be a catch and return or a catch and set up return . The

intermediate / middle school grades may return the ball directly from a set up  or a

bump or dig . Score one point for each return and then repeat to improve on a

previous performance .  Switch places often .




Alternatives :



·        Score additional points for the flipping group when the ball hits the ground



·        Play the ball off one bounce



·        Have the flipping players move in different directions



·        Add more volleyballs



·        Use small parachutes




Divide the players into partners with one beach towel for each group in a scattered

formation . One group is equipped with one type of volleyball or alternative . That is ,

each group will have  a different type of ball . Included equipment are

balloons(helium) , beach balls , regulation volleyballs , play balls , plastic balls , and

any available equipment that is easily  handled .  Arrange the group with the ball to be

matched up with another group without a ball . Each player holds the beach towel at

the ends  with one hand and one hand free. On a signal , the ball is transferred from

one group to the other . Any ball that leaves the beach towel is volleyed back to the

towel from the free hand . Count one score for each successful volley or ball transfer

without the ball landing to the ground.  Score consecutive volleys and or total flingo

flips from each transfer .

Alternatives :

·        Move the partners closer or further apart

·        Exchange a different ball with another group

·        Exchange partners to form a new partner group

·        Use a blanket for more playing surface(s)

·        Establish only one player for each towel , holding both ends

·        Choose even or uneven players per group




Arrange the class into 6-8 small circles , which are scattered throughout the gym or




outside facility . Each circle formation will be equipped one any volleyball or

alternative  ball that meets the ability and grade level .  Establish one leader per group

to start the activity . The leader will call out a previously learned skill that includes

the set up , bump , dig or serve skills . At that point all striking of the ball must be the

same . If there is an error , a new leader starts the activity with a different skill . The

play continues until all players have become the leader .  Count the number of

successful strikes / volleys each turn. Repeat to beat a previous score .  Every player

must touch the ball to be counted .  After completion of the first round , the leader

once again starts the activity , but when the next player  strikes the ball , a different

skill is called each time  ( set up , serve , bump, dig  ). For the primary grades , use a

balloon or beach ball , but no concentration activity .

Alternatives :

·        Use a lighter ball to ensure more touch and reaction time

·        Make the circles larger or smaller

·        Exchange players often

·        Play the volley / strike off one bounce




  • Floor Hockey


  • The grip and stance


  • Stick handling/dribbling


  • Controlling the stick


  • Passing/to a moving partner


  • Receiving the pass/while moving


  • Shooting/striking/to a partner or target


  • Flick shot


  • Slap shot


  • Backhand shot


  • Goalie play


  • Small sided games


The floor hockey skills are directed to the intermediate and middle school grades .

The equipment should be made of any safe material such as , soft plastic or styrofoam

material . Pilo Polo equipment , which is a plastic stick with a styrofoam bottle-like

material , can be used as an alternative.  The pucks can be made of Styrofoam

material , soft plastic or wiffeballs . The goal area is either a regulation hockey net or

traffic cones . Makeshift goals made from large cardboard boxes or tumbling mats

placed on an end make for exemplary alternatives.  The rules are modified with strict

adherence to safety concerns . Eye wear should be made available to protect the




Assemble all available hockey nets and modifications in a square formation with each

designated grid area . This will be an open space to strike the puck inside tumbling

mats placed on end , cardboard boxes , goal nets  or  traffic cones . The playing area

is the billiard table , and the goal areas are the billiard pockets. Place one goalie in

front of each goal . The remaining players will attempt to score at one of the goals .

The activity is completed when a score has been made at each of the four goals.

Exchange players and goalies often . Return the ball after a score . Establish a time

limit to score , and then repeat to beat a previous performance.

Alternatives :



·        Use different types of pucks



·        Choose even or uneven number of players



·        Change the size of the goal area



·        Eliminate the goalie



·        Switch to a new goal area often



·        Add an extra ball or puck



·        Choose only one or two billiard pockets to score



·        Use only the Styrofoam puck for easier mobility to save time





Set up plastic bowling pins at designated positions around the gym area ,. The

arrangement can be either a 3-2-1 or regulation set up as in a ten pin bowling game .

Use alternatives such as 2-liter soda pop containers or soda pop cans . Align the

players facing the targets about 15 – 30 feet apart depending on the grade level .

Choose one player to rearrange the bowling targets . Change set up players often.

Scoring is the number of total pins after a designated time limit . Repeat to beat a

previous performance.

Alternatives :



·        Change the distance from the bowling targets



·        Use pilo pilo or makeshift sticks for the primary students



·        Use different striking objects ( wiffleball , safe hockey pucks , smaller or larger plastic balls)



·        Keep regulation bowling scores ( integration)








  • Wiffleball


  • Throw and catch


  • Catch off a wall


  • Catch with a partner


  • Throw and catch while moving


  • Catch a rolling ball, one bounce ,no bounce


  • Distance and accuracy


  • Hitting off a tee


  • Self toss =hit


  • Strike a one bounced ball


  • Strike a pitched ball


  • Base running


The wiffle ball progression , along with striking using long handles implements ,

starts with the basic techniques of throwing and catching skills and hitting off a

batting tee or from  a pitched ball along with modified rules , equipment , and size of

the playing area .



Arrange the class  into two parallel lines facing each other about 6-8 feet apart .  The

activity is well suited for indoor or outdoor play . Start the activity with one ball for

each partner . On  a signal , the ball is rolled back and forth until play is stopped with

a designated whistle or musical selection . At that point , the person who has the ball

in their possession runs to a marked line , which is about thirty feet from the starting

position . The player without the ball attempts to tag the ball person before the

marked line has been passed.  Return to the starting position after each turn to repeat

the process . On the next turn , the end person from one line moves to the other end

while all others move in one direction to match up against a new partner. The scoring

is as follows : one point for a tag ; one point for not being tagged ; one point for a

successful catch without dropping the ball or loss of possession. The scores are

counted by beating or tying  a previous score each turn.

Alternatives :



·        Change the type of throw each time



·        Change the type of ball



·        Change the distance between opposing partners








Divide the game into three grid area with one batting tee at each grid . Make three

bases in  a diamond configuration . Divide the players equally in the grids with one

batter stationed at the batting tee .  The opposition is scattered with the diamond . Any

ball that is caught is then thrown to a designated pitcher . After the ball has been

struck , the batter and all remaining players run around the bases in order until the

ball has been received by the pitcher position player. Count one score for every base

that has been passed . Resume the game with a new batter . Switch positions every 3

minutes . Repeat the procedure and attempt to beat a previous score .  Switch pitching

positions often.

Alternatives :



·        Change the type of throw to the pitching position



·        Freeze positions after the pitcher receives the ball , then  a new batter continues the action .Only one score is counted when all players pass all three bases .



·        The bases may be run in opposite order ( 3-2-1 )



·        Make two bases – home and second



·        Throw the ball into a container instead of the pitching position



·        Have each player in the field toss to each other , then freeze the runners



·        Use traffic cones as batting tees for the primary grades



·        Make a modified batting tee ( plunger , pipe insulation, duct tape)







  • Catching and receiving


  • Backhand and cross body backhand


  • The Grip


  • The Throw


  • The footwork


  • Forehand(grip ,throw and footwork)


  • One hand catch


  • Pancake catch


  • Throw for accuracy


  • Throw for distance


  • Throw and catch while moving


  • Throw to a target


  • Small sided games


The Ultimate Frisbee skills are correlated with the other specific lead up games and

skills of throwing and catching . There are several flying discs that are used ranging

in colors and materials , which are made of hard plastic and cloth . The primary

grades will feel more comfortable with the cloth-like material .  The intermediate and

middle school grades will be  appropriate for the advanced levels of skills and the

actual rules of the activity .




Arrange the class around the gym facing a target on the wall or bleachers . Targets

may be hula hoops taped to the  wall , a hanging rope attached from the basketball

rim , box containers taped to the wall  or designs and shapes.  Use as many available

frisbees for more participation . Make  a scoring zone at each target and then repeat to

beat a previous performance .

Alternatives :

·        Change the size of the targets

·        Change the distance

·        Change the type of throw




Arrange the class into 6-8 single file lines with a leader , who starts the activity by

running out five steps away from the next player in line order. The second player in

order tosses the frisbee to the leader . When the Frisbee is caught , the second person

runs five steps from the leader and receives a toss from the leader. . Continue that

procedure until all players had a turn to run and toss . When the last player receives

the last toss , he/she tosses it back to the previous person until all throws are made

down the line . There are no steps taken on the way back . The score is the time limit

it takes to complete the tosses from beginning to end .  Repeat to beat a previous

performance .





·        Change the distance between players

·        Change the type of throw

·        Make a target at the last throw for an extra score.

·        Start over from the beginning if the frisbee is dropped

·        Use different types of Frisbees







All of the skill progression examples started at  a basic level with the story play

and continued from the primary to intermediate levels . Within each example ,

which relates more to an advanced level , it must be noted  that with alternatives

and modifications to rules ,space , and equipment ; the primary students  can

participate in the activities according to their level of ability . This will be

explained and described in the chapters for grades K-4th , Holiday Games , and

the Integration /Cooperative games .  Skill themes are more important at the

primary level and not the lead –up or real game.